These photographs by the German-born photographer Marcus Koppen are of cityscapes that show the nocturnal hustle and bustle of Dubai, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and New York.
The lighting on the streets and in buildings symbolises all this activity. And yet the same lighting that creates the abstract and surreal image of a city that never sleeps also epitomizes in its artificiality an unmistakable loneliness.
Koppen is fascinated by how rapidly the cityscapes of these modern urban giants are changing as well as by their growing importance. What he finds most inspiring is the surreal, artificial atmosphere that takes hold of these cities at night.
All photo by Marcus Koppen